Edd Mann Developer

Using Basic Auth. and Decorators in Python's Flask

I have recently set aside some time to delve into the world of Python and all its Zen. Being a web-developer at heart I of-course had to look at the current options available to me. In this post I will be guiding you through creating a single-script web application using Flask and Basic access authentication. For simplicity I will assume that you have a working installation of either Python 2.7/3.3 and virtualenv.

Project Setup

We must first setup a new virtual environment to cleanly handle external dependencies, similar to Composer in the PHP ecosystem. As Python libraries are shared at the system level by default, virtualenv provides projects with their own custom installation directories. This resolves the issue of different projects requiring different versions of the same package.

$ virtualenv venv
$ source venv/bin/activate
$ pip install Flask

Using the commands provided above we first create a new virtual environment called ‘venv’ in the projects root directory. To configure the python, pip etc. commands to take notice of the custom installation directories within the current shell instance, we must source the ‘activate’ script. Finally, we install Flask using the typical ‘pip’ command.

The Application

We are now ready to implement the web application logic. A design decision I have made is to separate the login credentials into their own ‘settings’ file. This is good practice and with Python’s everything is an object philosophy defining the file is easy.


As you can see the file requires no boilerplate code and simply specifies the two desired variables. With the settings now defined we can move on to implementing the web application itself.

from flask import Flask, Response, request
from functools import wraps

app = Flask(__name__)

def valid_credentials(username, password):
return username == app.config['USER'] and password == app.config['PASS']

def authenticate(f):
def wrapper(*args, **kwargs):
auth = request.authorization
if not auth.username or not auth.password or not valid_credentials(auth.username, auth.password):
return Response('Login!', 401, {'WWW-Authenticate': 'Basic realm="Login!"'})
return f(*args, **kwargs)
return wrapper

def index():
return 'Hello, world!'

def secure():
return 'Secure!'

if __name__ == '__main__':

Using Flask’s ability to import configuration options from external objects, we are able to access the specified credentials in the ‘valid_credentials’ function. To provide the ‘secure’ route with the required basic authentication I created a simple wrapper method which is used to decorate the route. Decorators are a super simple, yet increasingly powerful concept, allowing you to ‘wrap’ function calls with other functions in a very succinct manner. As this is an experiment I have specified that the application be run in debug mode, enabling auto-reloading of updated files within the local development server. Finally we are ready to run the application.

$ python main.py
$ pip freeze > requirements.txt

After checking to make sure that our handy work has been successful we can ‘freeze’ the required dependencies so as to ease future development and deployment.